Pharmacognosy II Notes B Pharmacy 5th Semester PDF Download


All Units Handwritten Notes



Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination
a) Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways- Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.
b) Study of utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of Biogenetic studies.

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General introduction, composition, chemistry & chemical classes, general methods of extraction & analysis, biosources, therapeutic uses and commercial applications of following secondary metabolites:
Alkaloids: Vinca, Rauwolfia, Belladonna, Opium,
Phenylpropanoids and Flavonoids: Lignans, Tea, Ruta Steroids,
Cardiac Glycosides & Triterpenoids: Liquorice, Dioscorea, Digitalis
Volatile oils: Mentha, Clove, Cinnamon, Fennel, Coriander,
Tannins: Catechu, Pterocarpus
Resins: Benzoin, Guggul, Ginger, Asafoetida, Myrrh, Colophony
Glycosides: Senna, Aloes, Bitter Almond
Iridoids, Other terpenoids & Naphthaquinones: Gentian, Artemisia, taxus, carotenoids

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Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents:
a) Terpenoids: Menthol, Citral, Artemisin
b) Glycosides: Glycyrhetinic acid & Rutin
c) Alkaloids: Atropine,Quinine,Reserpine,Caffeine
d) Resins: Podophyllotoxin, Curcumin

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Industrial production, estimation and utilization of the following phytoconstituents:
Forskolin, Sennoside, Artemisinin, Diosgenin, Digoxin, Atropine, Podophyllotoxin, Caffeine, Taxol, Vincristine and Vinblastine

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Basics of Phytochemistry
Modern methods of extraction, application of latest techniques like Spectroscopy, chromatography and electrophoresis in the isolation, purification and identification of crude drugs.

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